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OmegA+D Sufficiency™ for COVID-19 and FLU Prevention and Risk Reduction: An Evidence-Based Protocol that MUST be Universally Implemented

In other articles I have written extensively about the essential role of baseline heath and immunity (OmegA+D and COVID-19 and FLU Risk Reduction – An Evidence-Based Strategy that Should be Standard of Care; Evidence-Based COVID-19 and FLU Prevention and Risk Reduction – A Literature Summary and Supplementation Protocol), and the specific role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamins A and D in viral immune defense with respect to COVID-19 and influenza (The Essential Role of Omega-3 and Vitamins A and D in Viral Immune Defense; Immune Function, Immune Defense, and Vitamin D – What Everyone Needs to Know).

I emphasized the universally acknowledged fact that, regardless of age, the most significant determining variable with respect to the ratio of those who get infected and recover without serious illness vs those who get infected and do get seriously ill, require hospitalization, and/or die, is the level of individual baseline health and immune function status of those who become infected. The virus or seed is the same, it is the host or soil that determines the seriousness of the illness; this is irrefutable and universally accepted as fact.

In this article I provide a summary of the new evidence that has been published during the COVID-19 pandemic providing direct evidence of the benefits of Omega-3 and Vitamin D supplementation for prevention and risk reduction from COVID-19. PLEASE also read my other articles on this topic The Essential Role of Omega-3 and Vitamins A and D in Viral Immune Defense; Evidence-Based COVID-19 and FLU Prevention and Risk Reduction: A Literature Summary and Supplementation Protocol; Immune Function, Immune Defense, and Vitamin D – What Everyone Needs to Know; Over 100 Scientists and Doctors Call for Vit D Supplementation to Combat COVID-19) so that you can see the incredible amount of evidence regarding the importance of Omega-3 and Vitamins A and D for proper immune function in general, and, specifically, for viral immune defense with respect to upper respiratory tract infections from Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses, Influenza viruses, and Influenza-like viruses.

Panigraphy et al. (2020) Inflammation Resolution: a dual prolonged approach to averting cytokine storms in COVID-19? Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 39: 337-340.

“Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is characterized by pulmonary hyper-inflammation and potentially life-threatening “cytokine storms”. Controlling the local and systemic inflammatory response in COVID-19 may be as important as anti-viral therapies.”

“Endogenous lipid autacoid mediators, referred to as eicosanoids, play a critical role in the induction of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.”

Omega-3 fatty acids (eicosanoids), are essential for the production of lipid mediators called resolvins that play a significant role in what is known as the resolving phase of inflammation – hence the term resolvins.

Chronic inflammation is the result of a lack of resolving inflammation more than it is hyper-inflammation. Deficiencies of Omega-3 and Vitamins D and A cause dysfunction in the resolving phase of inflammation. Inflammation, even a high degree of inflammation, is often both normal and necessary in response to acute injury. It is not the acute inflammation that is at the root of cytokine storm or all the chronic inflammatory diseases such as heart-disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, etc. It is the lack of inflammation resolving that is the root cause of chronic inflammation.

Deficiency of Omega-3 fatty acids causes deficiencies of resolvins that control and regulate (resolve) the inflammatory response and deficiency of Vitamin D causes deficient activation of Treg cells (T-Regulatory Cells) which control and regulate (resolve) inflammation.

“While most COVID-19 clinical trials focus on “anti-viral” and “anti-inflammatory” strategies, stimulating inflammation resolution is a novel host-centric therapeutic avenue.”

“Here, we discuss using pro-resolution mediators as a potential complement to current anti-viral strategies for COVID-19.”

“A paradigm shift is emerging in our understanding of the resolution of inflammation as an active biochemical process with the discovery of novel endogenous specialized pro-resolving lipid autacoid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins.” – And Treg Cells activated by Vitamin D!

“Resolvins and other SPMs stimulate macrophage mediated clearance of debris and counter pro-inflammatory cytokine production, a process called inflammation resolution.”

“In contrast to classic anti-inflammatory agents, endogenous pro-resolution lipids [omega-3 fatty acids] can terminate the inflammatory response by promoting the clearance of cellular debris.”

“Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, lipoxins, and protectins, are bioactive lipid autacoids that mediate endogenous resolution by stimulating macrophage phagocytosis of cellular debris and countering the release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines.”

“Importantly, loss of inflammation resolution mechanisms plays a role in sustaining pathologic inflammation.”

“Endogenous resolution processes have been identified in the termination of infectious diseases, including influenza, and could thus be harnessed for averting dysregulated inflammation and associated mortality in COVID-19.”

“SPMs (specialized pro-resolving mediators) from omega-3 fatty acids”:

1. stimulate macrophage phagocytosis and efferocytosis
2. decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production
3. inhibit leukocytosis and thereby decrease the inflammatory infiltrate, and
4. may stimulate the adaptive immune response and the production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.”

“Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines may not be sufficient to prevent COVID-19 progression.”

“Importantly, SPMs [specialized pro-resolving mediators from Omega-3 fatty acids] terminate self-sustaining inflammatory processes, such as those induced by COVID-19, by broadly inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production and promoting a return to tissue homeostasis.”

“Moreover, conventional anti-inflammatory agents such as NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, while limiting the eicosanoid storm, may be “resolution toxic” as they indiscriminately inhibit eicosanoid pathways that produce resolution mediators and thereby prevent active resolution.”

This is why NSAIDS don’t work for chronic back pain or other chronic pain and why they only work for acute pain for a VERY SHORT period of time. NSAIDS “indiscriminately inhibit eicosanoid pathways that produce resolution mediators and thereby prevent active resolution”. NSAIDS inhibit the body’s innate ability to resolve inflammation!!

“Inhibiting resolution mediator production may potentially facilitate COVID-19-induced tissue injury and progression of infection.”

“As demonstrated in many inflammatory disease models, selectively promoting endogenous inflammation resolution mechanisms clears inflammatory exudates more effectively and promotes a return to tissue homeostasis compared with classic anti-inflammatory agents.” OF COURSE!!

Szabo, Z et al. (2020) The Potential Beneficial Effect of EPA and DHA Supplementation Managing Cytokine Storm in Coronavirus Disease. Frontiers in Physiology 11: Article 752

“In the recent COVID-19 (caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus) pandemic a subgroup of patient death is attributed to the so-called “cytokine storm” phenomenon (also called cytokine release syndrome or macrophage overactivation syndrome).”

“LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are noteworthy because of their direct influence in the immunological response to viral infections.”

“Evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs [Omega-3 Fatty Acids] can modulate the immune response and function in many ways. Among these complex immunomodulatory effects, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1b) - because of the suspected central regulatory role in the “cytokine storm” - should be highlighted. These cytokines can be affected by dietary EPA and DHA intake.”

“Both EPA and DHA can decrease the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and animal studies.”

“Pre-supplementation with DHA (400mM) significantly decreased the release of IL-6 and IP-10 by Calu-3 cells infected with Rhinovirus RV-43 and RV-1B.”

“Based on the results of a randomized, controlled study published in 2018, high-dose (1.5 g/day EPA and 1.0 g/day DHA) n-3 supplementation can reduce plasma levels of both IL-6 and IL-1B.”

“The anti-inflammatory effect of EPA and DHA supplementation seems consistent with most of the previous clinical findings.”

“Summary: Based on the available data, the supplementation of EPA and DHA in COVID-19 patients appears to have potential beneficial effect in managing the “cytokine storm.””

“Therefore, the use of EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as both a supportive therapy and a prevention strategy in SARS-Cov-2 infection.”

Grant et al. (April 2020) Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths Nutrients 12, 988; doi:10.3390/nu12040988

“Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins [anti-microbial proteins or AMPs] that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation [cytokine storm] that injures the lining of the lungs [Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome or ARDS], leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines.”

As I describe in the other articles mentioned above, vitamin D is required by the phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) of the innate immune system in order for these cells to be able to synthesize and release sufficient amounts of anti-microbial proteins which these cells use to kill viruses.

Vitamin D is also required for the proper function of T-regulatory (Treg) cells of the adaptive immune system. Treg cells are essential for controlling and regulating the inflammatory response. When Treg cells are deficient in Vit D they cannot properly control inflammation and this can lead to what is known as the cytokine storm (inflammatory storm) which is the underlying cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome – which is what kills people with COVID-19 and pneumonia from FLU.

McCartney, D.M. and Byrne, D.G. (April 2020) Optimisation of Vitamin D Status for Enhanced Immuno-protection Against Covid-19 . Irish Medical Journal; Vol 113; No. 4.

“Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50nmol/l) is common in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital inpatients and nursing home residents. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of acute viral respiratory infection and community acquired pneumonia, with several molecular mechanisms proposed to explain this association.”

“Vitamin D supplementation has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory infection.”

“Recent studies have shown an inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and risk of acute respiratory tract infection.”

“Notably, a September 2019 meta-analysis by Zhou and colleagues incorporating data from 21,000 subjects across eight observational studies showed that those with a serum vitamin D level <20ng/ml (i.e. <50nmol/l) had a 64% increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.”

Remember, it is not influenza that kills people each year, it is influenza-induced pneumonia which leads to cytokine storm. Pneumonia is the result of cytokine storm and is really an acute respiratory distress. The reason Vit D reduces pneumonia, and thus deaths from influenza and pneumonia, is because Vit D allows the innate immune system to fight off the influenza virus before it turns to pneumonia and Vit D also allows Treg cells to control the cytokine or inflammatory storm and thus reduce the chances of pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress.

“Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to increased risk of respiratory infection including Covid-19.”

“We recommend that all older adults, hospital inpatients, nursing home residents and other vulnerable groups (e.g. those with diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function, those with darker skin, vegetarians and vegans, those who are overweight or obese, smokers and healthcare workers) be urgently supplemented with vitamin D to enhance their resistance to Covid-19, and that this advice be quickly extended to the general adult population.”

I make the same recommendation - and have been doing so LONG BEFORE COVID!!

Trinity College Dublin. "Vitamin D determines severity in COVID-19 so government advice needs to change, experts urge: Researchers point to changes in government advice in Wales, England and Scotland." ScienceDaily, 12 May 2020.

“The authors propose that, whereas optimising vitamin D levels will certainly benefit bone and muscle health, the data suggests that it is also likely to reduce serious COVID-19 complications.”

“This may be because vitamin D is important in regulation and suppression of the inflammatory cytokine response, which causes the severe consequences of COVID-19 and 'acute respiratory distress syndrome' associated with ventilation and death.”

"Here we see observational evidence of a link of vitamin D with mortality. Optimising vitamin D intake to public health guidelines will certainly have benefits for overall health and support immune function.”

“But vitamin D can also support the immune system through a number of immune pathways involved in fighting SARS-CoV-2. Many recent studies confirm the pivotal role of vitamin D in viral infections.”

Laird, E. et al. (May 2020) Vitamin D and Inflammation: Potential Implications for Severity of Covid-19. Irish Medical Journal; Vol 113; No. 5.

“Recent research has highlighted a crucial supportive role for vitamin D in immune cell function, particularly in modulating the inflammatory response to viral infection.”

“At a cellular level, vitamin D modulates both the adaptive and innate immune system through cytokines and regulation of cell signalling pathways. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present on both T and B immune cells; Vitamin D modulates the proliferation, inhibition and differentiation of these cells.”

“In experimental models of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, vitamin D is associated with lower concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin- 6 (IL-6), which plays a significant role in Covid-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).”

“Vitamin D also reduces lipolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice by blocking effects on the Ang-2-Tie-2 and renin-angiotensin pathways that are highly relevant to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenicity.”

“A ‘sufficient’ vitamin D serum level is linked to a switch from a pro- to anti-inflammatory profiles in older adults.”

This is also why Vit D is so important for everyone. Vit D induces “a switch from pro- to anti-inflammatory profiles” and inflammation is at the root of chronic pain and many other chronic illnesses. Inflammation is also at the root of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and virtually every other chronic illness. This is why sufficient intake of Vit D has been clinically shown to prevent, reduce the severity of, and/or reduce virtually every chronic illness. Add sufficient intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which have also been proven to induce “a switch from a pro- to anti-inflammatory profiles” and you can begin to understand the ENORMOUS HEALTH BENEFITS of OmegA+D Sufficiency™ which provides sufficient amounts of Omega-3 and Vitamin D!!

“This impact on the regulation of inflammation is of particular importance in older adults, the obese, and those with chronic conditions, as they may already be pre-set for a higher inflammatory response if exposed to Covid-19. A heightened inflammatory response in people who are vitamin D deficient may therefore increase the potential for ‘cytokine storm’ and consequent ARDS [Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome].”

“In this short report we observed that low 25(OH)D concentrations appear to be associated with increased mortality from Covid-19.”

“Countries with a formal vitamin D fortification policy appear to have the lowest rates of infection whilst countries with no policy and highest deficiency rates appear to be more adversely affected.”

People that supplement with OmegA+D Sufficiency™ will significantly lower their risk of COVID-19 and FLU, significantly lower their risk of cytokine storm and severe illness from these infections, and significantly lower their risk of death.

I cannot, for the life of me, understand why ANYONE would not take OmegA+D Sufficiency™!!! The evidence of benefit is OVERWHELMING. If there has ever been a supplementation no-brainer this is it.

Carpagnano et al. (June 2020) Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID 19 Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

“Hypovitaminosis D [Vit D deficiency] is a highly spread condition correlated with increased risk of respiratory tract infections. The world is in the grip of the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID 19) pandemic. In these patients, cytokine storm is associated with disease severity.”

“In consideration of the role of vitamin D in the immune system, the aim of this study was to analyse vitamin D levels in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and to assess any correlations with disease severity and prognosis.”

“Conclusions: High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was found in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, treated in a RICU [intensive care units]. Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher mortality risk.”

Merzon, E. et al. (July 2020) Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study doi: 10.1111/FEBS.15495

“Conclusion: Low plasma 25(OH)D level appears to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization.”

Panagiotou & Gabriella. (July 2020) Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity. Clinical Endocrinology doi:10.111/CEN.14276

“Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been proposed to play a role in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology. We aim to evaluate our implementation of a local protocol for treatment of VDD among patients hospitalized for COVID-19; to assess the prevalence of VDD among COVID-19 in-patients, and examine potential associations with disease severity and fatality.”

“Conclusions: Higher prevalence of VDD [Vitamin D deficiency] was observed in patients requiring ITU admission compared to patients managed on medical wards.”

Kaufman, H.W. et al. (Sept 2020) SARS-COV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. PLoS ONE 15(9): e0239252.

“Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections and mortality from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This relationship is anticipated, given that vitamin D has numerous actions affecting the innate and adaptive immune systems. Respiratory monocytes/macrophages and epithelial cells constitutively express the vitamin D receptor.”

“Acting through this receptor, vitamin D may be important in protection against respiratory infections. In addition, an important action of vitamin D is suppressing excessive cytokine release that can present as a “cytokine storm,” a common cause of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.”

“This study used a retrospective, observational analysis of deidentified tests performed at a national clinical laboratory to determine if circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity rates.”

“Over 190,000 patients from all 50 states with SARS-CoV-2 results performed mid-March through mid-June, 2020 and matching 25(OH)D results from the preceding 12 months were included.”

“SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D [Vit D] levels, a relationship that persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, both sexes, and age ranges.”

“Vitamin D supplementation may reduce acute respiratory infections, especially in people with vitamin D deficiency. A previous study found that each 4 ng/mL increase in circulating 25 (OH)D levels was associated with a 7% decreased risk of seasonal infection, a decrement of approximately 1.75% per ng/mL.”

“This is remarkably similar to the 1.6% lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity per ng/mL found in our adjusted multivariable model.”

“These results demonstrate an inverse relationship between circulating 25(OH)D levels and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. For the entire population those who had a circulating level of 25(OH) D <20 ng/mL had a 54% higher positivity rate compared to those who had a blood level of 30– 34 ng/mL.”

“The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity continued to decline until the serum levels reached 55 ng/mL. This finding is not surprising, given the established inverse relationship between risk of respiratory viral pathogens, including influenza, and 25(OH)D levels.”

“Until treatment and vaccine for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) becomes widely available, other methods of reducing infection rates should be explored.”

“Our findings provide impetus to explore the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk for SARS-CoV- 2 infection and COVID-19 disease.”

Castillo, M.E. et al. (Sept 2020) Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 203 105751

“The vitamin D endocrine system may have a variety of actions on cells and tissues involved in COVID- 19 progression especially by decreasing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. We therefore evaluated the effect of calcifediol treatment, on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality rate among Spanish patients hospitalized for COVID-19.”

“Participants: 76 consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, clinical picture of acute respiratory infection, confirmed by a radiographic pattern of viral pneumonia and by a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR with CURB65 severity scale (recommending hospital admission in case of total score > 1).”

“Procedures: All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days.”

“Eligible patients were allocated at a 2 calcifediol:1 no calcifediol ratio through electronic randomization on the day of admission to take oral calcifediol (0.532 mg), or not. Patients in the calcifediol treatment group continued with oral calcifediol (0.266 mg) on day 3 and 7, and then weekly until discharge or ICU admission.”

“Results: Of 50 patients treated with calcifediol, one (2%) required admission to the ICU, none died, and all were discharged without complications.”

“Of the 26 patients not treated with calcifediol, 13 (50 %) required admission to the ICU and two died.”

“Our pilot study demonstrated that administration of a high dose of Calcifediol or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a main metabolite of vitamin D endocrine system, significantly reduced the need for ICU treatment of patients requiring hospitalization due to proven COVID-19.”



An Evidence-Based COVID-19/Influenza Prevention and Risk Reduction Supplementation Protocol

Szabo, Z et al. (2020) The Potential Beneficial Effect of EPA and DHA Supplementation Managing Cytokine Storm in Coronavirus Disease. Frontiers in Physiology 11: Article 752

“Summary: Based on the available data, the supplementation of EPA and DHA in COVID-19 patients appears to have potential beneficial effect in managing the “cytokine storm.””

Therefore, the use of EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as both a supportive therapy and a prevention strategy in SARS-Cov-2 infection.”

Grant et al. (April 2020) Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths Nutrients 12, 988; doi:10.3390/nu12040988

To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d.”

“The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/mL (100–150 nmol/L).”

“For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful.”

Bettoun Burris, et al. Retinoid X Receptor Is a Nonsilent Major Contributor to Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated Transcriptional Activation. Molecular Endocrinology 17: 2320–2328, 2003

“In summary, we describe a unique and unexpected facet of intermolecular cross-talk between VDR and RXR and demonstrate that RXR actively participates in RXR-VDR-mediated gene transcription by directly recruiting coactivators in response to 1,25-(OH)2D3.”

In layperson terms vitamin A (retinoid) is required to activate the expression of vitamin D controlled genes. In other words, without sufficient amounts of vitamin A, the actions of vitamin D can be impaired or even blocked. Vitamin A and Vitamin D work synergistically.

Mawson, A. (2013) Role of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A and D in Pathogenesis of Influenza: A New Perspective. Infectious Diseases

“This paper presents a new model of the etiopathogenesis of influenza, suggesting that host resistance and susceptibility depend importantly on the ratio of vitamin D to vitamin A activity.”

“Retinoid [Vit A] concentrations within normal physiological limits appear to inhibit influenza pathogenesis whereas higher background concentrations [i.e., very low vitamin D:A ratios] increase the risk of severe complications of the disease.”

Prietl, B. et al. (2013) Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients, 5, 2502-2521; doi: 10.3390/nu5072502

“Besides enhancing chemotaxis and phagocytic capabilities of innate immune cells, the complex of calcitriol [Vit D], VDR [Vit D Receptor], and retinoid X [Vit A] receptor directly activates the transcription of antimicrobial peptides such as defensin β2 and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides.”

Vitamin A and D TOGETHER activate the transcription (production/epigenetic expression) of AMPs (anti-microbial proteins) by innate immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) which KILL VIRUSES.

Levine, SA. The importance of a balanced approach to vitamin D supplementation. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 2011;26(1):15-20.

“Vitamin A and vitamin D balance, enhance, and contain each other through the retinoid X receptor (RXR).”

Because they share a receptor, if we supplement either vitamin D or vitamin A in an unbalanced fashion, we create a functional deficiency of the one not supplemented.”

The Scientific Evidence is Clear that:

1. sufficient intake of omega-3 fatty acids and Vitamins A + D is essential for immune function, especially immune defense against Influenza (flu), Rhino (cold) , and Corona (covid) viruses,
2. deficiencies in these essential nutrients leads to reduced baseline immune defense against these viruses and/or to increased hyper-inflammatory responses to these viruses leading to cytokine storm and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
3. supplementation with sufficient daily amounts (not mega or bolus doses) of these essential nutrients has been clinically shown to decrease inflammation and thus the risk of cytokine storm and/or ARDS and/or to decrease the risk of infection and/or reduce severity of infection from these viruses
4. the Vitamin A and Vitamin D receptors on immune cells (phagocytes and T-cells) require proper synergistic amounts of both Vitamins A and Vitamin D to properly up-regulate these receptors to allow sufficient intake of these vitamins into the immune cells to express proper immune function
5. Innate Choice OmegA+D Sufficiency is the only supplement in the world that combines fish oil, cod liver oil (with naturally occurring pre-formed Vitamins A and D), and extra vitamin D in order to provide sufficient amounts of Omega-3 and Vitamins A and D, AND, provide the proper synergistic amounts of Vitamins A and D

Thus, I have developed the following evidence-based COVID-19/Influenza prevention and risk reduction supplementation protocol and adamantly state that this should become standard of care.


First month  4 caps of OmegA+D Sufficiency™ and 12 drops of Vitamin D Sufficiency DAILY;
This provides 10,000 IU/day of Vitamin D and sufficient and synergistic amounts of Omega-3 and Vitamin A.
Ongoing  4 caps of OmegA+D Sufficiency™ and 2 drops of Vitamin D Sufficiency DAILY;
This provides 5,000 IU/day of Vitamin D and sufficient and synergistic amounts of Omega-3 and Vitamin A.

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